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The coffins are filled with wood shavings and lined with fabrics. During restoration, it appeared that both were probably renewed at the end of the 19 th or beginning of the 20 th century. Bone and soft tissue preservation of the mummies is quite good. The overall representation of the mummies is adequate for anthropological investigation and anatomical integrity of the mummies is maintained even though the individuals E, F and G are incomplete.
Several articular dislocations and soft tissue damage attest the multiple violations of the crypt. Skin, muscles, tendons and bones can be distinguished in the CT images. Soft tissue preservation was further evaluated for the scanned individuals A, B, C and D: Inside the skulls, remnants of the shrunken brain and the meningeal membranes are observed. In the thoracic cavities remnants of the lungs and the mediastinal structures are found in all cases, including the heart, the trachea and the aorta.
In the abdominal cavities only minor remnants of anatomical structures could be observed due to their shrinkage and decomposition. Individual A: The mummy is lying in an extended supine position with the arms bent in a degree angle and resting on the chest.
The left hand is lying on the right forearm Fig 4. As a result of post-mortem manipulation, the osseous cranio-cervical junction is no longer maintained Fig 5. Remnants of the shrunken brain are visible in the posterior cranial fossa. The lower cervical and upper thoracic spine reveals degenerative changes white arrow. The cranio-cervical junction depicts severe displacement of the atlas and axis asterisk. The individual is female, age 40 to 60 years, and shows a supernumerary non-sacralized 6 th lumbar vertebra and a perforated xiphoid process as anatomical variants.
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The lumbar vertebrae are bent towards the left side of the body. The vertebral bodies of L2 and L3 exhibit lateral wedging at the apex of the curvature in addition to rotation and torsion. Since the curvature continues over several spinal segments and no primary narrowing of the intervertebral space could be observed as it would be expected in tuberculosis [ 60 ] , the curvature is most likely caused by an extreme left-convex lumbar scoliosis with a right-convex counter-curve.
Furthermore, resolution of cancellous bone tissue could be observed in the vertebral bodies of L2 and L3. The lesions are sharply defined and limited to the bodies without affection of the roof plates. A possible diagnosis could be an intraosseous vertebral haemangioma. Haemangiomas are benign, solitary tumours of proliferating blood vessels and vascular sinusoids that are mostly asymptomatic and usual incidental findings of imaging techniques.
Additional bone changes of the spine include extreme degenerative alterations to the superior and inferior articular facets as well as to the bodies of the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. It is probable that mobility was reduced due to this deformity but complete ankylosis of the vertebral bodies L1 to L5 is not present [ 18 ]. In addition, slight arthrosis was found in the left sacroiliac joint. The cervical vertebrae C6 and C7 as well as the first thoracic vertebra T1 exhibit localised degenerative changes to the vertebral bodies, including sclerotic rims on the vertebral plates Fig 5.
Those alterations can be interpreted as signs of advanced cervical and upper thoracic osteochondrosis. The individual further displays a bone cyst in the left distal ulna. Body height is estimated to have been The mummy is placed on a supporting shell.
The dentition shows ante-mortem tooth loss. Note the asymmetry between the torso and the lower extremities due to scoliosis. Based on the family chronicle [ 13 ], individual A was usually identified as Baroness Schenck von Geyern. Individual B: The mummy is lying in an extended supine position with the hands placed next to each other on the lap Fig 8A.
The mummy is still dressed with gloves, knee-high leather boots and woollen knitted stockings underneath Fig 8B. Post-mortem damage affects the anterior portion of the neck. B Preserved leather boots. Characteristic features are the square domed toe, the high stacked heel and the openings to the sides photo: W. The individual is male, aged 25 to 40 years, and displays several anatomical variants, among them a non-sacralised 6 th lumbar vertebra and a frontal sinus aplasia.
No degeneration of the spine or the joints was observed. Several smaller calcifications are located in the thoracic as well as abdominal parts of the aorta, the hili of the lungs and in the trachea Fig 9. Another structure of ovular shape, approx. Shell-like radiodense structures of different size in the right thoracic cavity and abdomen might represent the content of the intestines. The estimated body height is Several calcifications can be seen in the mediastinum, the pulmonary hili and the lungs. Individual B was commonly designated as Baron von Holz [ 13 ]. Individual C was buried in an extended supine position.
The arms are bent in a 50 degree angle so that the hands—probably formerly interlaced—have sunken on the breasts Fig Individual C shows severe post-mortem damage and lacks the complete anterior abdominal wall as well as soft tissue over the sacrum, the upper spine and the upper facial area. Additionally, the individual has several dorso-lateral rib fractures on the left side indicating a rough manipulation of the mummy in the past.
The coffin is lined with fabric. Post-mortem damage can be seen in the facial area and at the abdomen photo: W. The individual is female, aged 30 to 50 years. A lateral deviation of the spine was observed on the CT images Fig It can be described as right-convex, thoracolumbar scoliosis with the apex at the vertebra T8 Fig Degenerative alterations are present on the articular facets of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine.
The vertebral bodies of L1 and L2 exhibit lesions in the cancellous bone Fig In sagittal view, the lesions have a sharply confined and of locular form. In axial view, the honeycomb appearance is also observable. The roof plates of L1 and L2 are intact and the intervertebral space does not exhibit any narrowing which would exclude tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis [ 60 ].
The lesions were probably caused by an intraosseous haemangioma [ 54 ].
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The pubic symphysis shows alterations in form of a joint irregularity and sclerotic rims. The left sacroiliac joint shows similar alterations with joint surface irregularity and sclerotic rims.
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Both sides exhibit a misalignment with a protruding sacrum. The thoracic vertebrae exhibit lateral deviation scoliosis. In the sagittal view, the lumbar vertebrae 1 and 2 show sharply confined lesions of honeycomb appearance, also visible in the axial view small window. The lesions were probably caused by intraosseous vertebral haemangiomas. The estimated body height of individual C is Individual D was buried in an extended supine position with the hands placed on top of each other on the abdomen Fig 3.
The individual is wearing woollen knitted stockings with a geometric pattern. The soft tissue on the anterior neck and the facial area shows heavy post-mortem damage, possibly aggravated by decomposition.
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Some reddish curly hair is still preserved on the head. Individual D is male with an estimated age of 35 to 55 years.
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He exhibits several ante-mortem and post-mortem alterations of the dentition Fig 14A and 14B , including a dislocation of several teeth in the oral cavity and the upper half of the cervical part of the trachea. His fifth lumbar vertebra shows an additional articular facet towards the sacrum on the right side. The calculated body height is A The dentition shows several alterations including ante-mortem tooth loss, carious lesions, destructive periodontal processes, and post-mortem displacement of teeth. B Detail of the dentition showing ante-mortem tooth loss and severe carious lesions arrows.
Individual D is believed to be Julius Wilhelm von Crailsheim [ 13 ]. Individual E is lying in an extended supine position on the bare bottom of the coffin. The arms are bent and lying parallel to each other on the chest. The mummy was damaged at the neck, the chest and feet, resulting in the absence of the mandible and the feet. No remnants of clothes were found. Individual E is female with an estimated age of 30 to 50 years according to the state of dentition. No imaging data are available for this individual.
Individual F is found in the reversed coffin lid no. It is partially mummified without head, left arm, right forearm and lower legs. The original body position cannot be determined. The individual is male and 40 to 60 years of age. The individual has osteophytes on the spinous processes of the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae as well as enthesophytes on the pelvis and sacrum. The latter are especially pronounced on the iliac crest and the ischial tuberosity and may be related to old age, obesity, or repeated acute minor stress due to physical activity.
They can also occur in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis DISH [ 61 ]. Further differential diagnosis was hampered by the integrity of the abdomen and chest and the lack of imaging data. Individual F does not have an ascribed identity. Individual G is an incomplete infant mummy without head or forearms Fig The elements of the trunk skeleton are completely disintegrated due to post-mortem damage Fig The trunk skeleton is largely disintegrated.
Note the presence of the ossification centres of the proximal humeral head, proximal femoral head and distal femur, proximal and distal tibia, and distal fibula. The infant mummy could be identified as female due to observable genitalia and was aged 6 to 12 months old according to long bone length. Ossification centres of the following epiphyses are present: proximal humeral head, proximal femoral head and distal femur, proximal and distal tibia, distal fibula, calcaneus, talus, cuboid and lateral cuneiform Fig Therefore, the infant can be estimated older than 3 months.
However, the ossification centres of the proximal fibula, the medial and intermediate cuneiform as well as the navicular are absent which allows to narrow down the age to below 8 months [ 47 ].
The calculated body height is 67 cm. No remnants of organs could be identified in the thorax or abdomen. No identity has been ascribed to individual G.